Article by John Miller

What is Sciatica?

Sciatica describes pain felt along the sciatic nerve, and anything that irritates or compresses the nerve can cause sciatic pain.

The sciatic nerve is the longest in the body, which runs from your lower back down through the buttock, hamstrings, and lower legs. The sciatic nerve originates from spinal segments L4, L5, S1, S2 and S3.

Leg pain can have various sources. It can be a local leg injury, or it may even be referred from your lower back. The main nerve that travels from your lower back to your leg is your sciatic nerve. Irritation or pinching of your sciatic nerve can cause severe leg pain known as sciatica. Sciatica is commonly misdiagnosed, which can result in either slow or non-responsive treatment.

Common Causes of Sciatica

Pressure on the sciatic nerve from a herniated disc is usually what causes sciatica. Otherwise, joint inflammation, nerve compression from bony arthritic growths or a locked facet joint in the lower spine can commonly cause sciatica. Anything that irritates or compresses the sciatic nerve can cause sciatic pain.

While there are numerous causes of sciatica, the most common are:

Other sources include:

You’re most likely to get sciatica when you’re 30 to 50 years old. It may happen due to the effects of general spine wear and tear (spondylosis) or a traumatic injury that causes sudden pressure on the lumbar discs (e.g. lifting, bending or sneezing).

What are Sciatica Symptoms?

Sciatica causes pain that usually begins in the lower back and spreads through the buttock, leg, calf and, occasionally, the foot. The pain can vary between dull, aching or burning sensations and sharp, shooting pains.

Sciatica can also cause tingling, numbness or muscle weakness in the affected leg. In these cases, your symptoms may become permanent. It is crucial to seek medical attention in these situations as long-term nerve compression can permanently damage the nerve and function.

One or more of the following sensations may occur because of Sciatica:

  • A pain in the rear or leg that is worse when sitting
  • Burning or tingling in the leg
  • Weakness, numbness or difficulty moving the leg or foot
  • Constant pain on one side of the rear calf
  • A shooting pain that makes it difficult to stand up

How is Sciatica Diagnosed?

Sciatica is a clinical diagnosis based on your symptom description, the behaviour of your pain and a thorough physical examination.

While the diagnosis of sciatica is reasonably simple, the primary cause of your sciatica may require further investigations to eliminate or confirm its origin. It is also important to determine how significant your sciatic nerve has been compressed.

Your physiotherapist will examine you, paying special attention to your spine and legs. In addition to asking you if you have low back pain that spreads to the leg and calf, your physiotherapist will test you for muscle weakness, sensation deficits and altered reflexes in your leg or foot.

They will also want to know if you’ve had an injury, fever, problems controlling your bowels or bladder, previous cancers and whether you’ve been losing weight without trying. The answers to these questions are important because if these symptoms are present, the cause of sciatica could be a serious condition, such as a bone fracture, infection or cancer.

Your physiotherapist or doctor may send you for X-rays or arrange for computed tomography (CT) scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to check for problems in the spinal vertebrae (backbones) that may be irritating or compressing your sciatic nerve. Most cases of sciatica affect the L5 or S1 nerve roots.

For specific advice regarding how to best diagnose or manage your sciatica, please seek the advice of your physiotherapist or doctor.

Sciatica Treatment

PHASE I – Pain Relief & Protection

Managing your pain. Pain is the main reason that you seek treatment for sciatica. In truth, it was actually the final symptom that you developed and should be the first symptom to improve.

Managing your inflammation. Inflammation is a normal part of your healing process post-injury. But, excessive inflammation can be the main cause of your sciatica.

Please contact your physiotherapist or doctor for their professional opinion.

PHASE II – Restoring Normal Flexibility, Posture & Strength

As your pain and inflammation settle, your physiotherapist will turn their attention to restoring your normal back joint range of motion and resting muscle tension, lower limb muscle flexibility and posture.

Your physiotherapist will assess your muscle recruitment pattern and prescribe the best exercises for you specific to your needs. They may recommend that you undertake an ultrasound-guided exercise program where you can view your deep core muscle contractions on a monitor.

PhysioWorks has developed a Back Pain Core Stabilisation Program to assist their sciatica patients to regain normal core muscle control. Other more advanced programs can include stability exercises and equipment such as a Swiss exercise ball. Please ask your physio for their advice.

Swimming and hydrotherapy exercises are beneficial in early injury repair due to lesser body weight in the buoyancy of water. This allows more movement without causing pain.

PHASE III – Restoring Full Function & Dynamic Control

The next stage of your rehabilitation is aimed at safely returning you to your desired activities. Everyone has different demands which will determine what specific treatment goals you need to achieve. Your physiotherapist is the best person to guide your rehabilitation.

PHASE IV – Preventing a Recurrence

Sciatica does have a tendency to return. The main reason it is thought to recur is due to insufficient rehabilitation.

Fine-tuning your back mobility and core control and learning self-management techniques will ultimately help you to achieve your goal of safely returning to your previous sporting or leisure activities without sciatica.

Exercise is like cleaning your teeth. Exercise prevents problems. For specific advice regarding your sciatica, please seek the advice of your trusted healthcare professional.

Surgery for Sciatica

Surgery is occasionally required when your leg pain does not settle with a conservative (non-operative) approach. Persisting symptoms over six months may require the attention of a surgeon who specialises in treating back pain and sciatica. If you have some severe symptoms such as bowel or bladder dysfunction or extreme muscle weakness you may require emergency surgery.

Please check with your physiotherapist or doctor for their professional opinion.

What is the Prognosis for Sciatica?

Fortunately, sciatica usually eases after a short period of rest and avoiding aggravating activities. Everyone is different because of the various pathologies that cause sciatica, but 90% plus of sciatica suffers will be asymptomatic within six weeks.

About one in every 50 people experiences sciatica as a result of a herniated disc. Of these, 10-25 per cent has symptoms lasting more than six weeks. About 80-90 per cent of people with sciatica get better, over time.

All sciatica patients who suffer pain that lasts longer than six weeks should undertake a specific exercise regime to regain control of their symptoms in an effort to avoid spinal surgery.

Other Treatment Options

Back Brace

A back brace or corset can provide excellent relief for most sciatica sufferers. Those who gain the most benefit are those who find their pain eases when they wrap/bind a towel or sheet (folded-lengthwise) tightly around their stomach and back. If this simple test eases your pain, you should use a back brace in the short term. Back braces and strong deep core muscles help to avoid a recurrence in the future.

Back braces are available from PhysioWorks or via the following web link: Back Brace

Massage Therapy

Your spinal muscles will often present in muscle spasms, which respond favourably to soft tissue techniques such as massage therapy. You should seek the assistance of a quality remedial massage therapist to assist your sciatica treatment.

Discover more about Massage.


Acupuncture has been an effective source of pain relief for over 5000 years. While we do not fully understand how it works, acupuncture can assist you with pain relief. Ask your physiotherapist for advice as most of our PhysioWorks physiotherapists have acupuncture training.

Find out more about: Acupuncture.

TENS Machine

TENS machines are an electronic pain-relieving devices that will reduce your pain and your need for pain-relieving drugs. More information can be found here: Tens Machine

Swiss Exercise Ball

The unstable surface that your Swiss Exercise Ball provides can help awaken your deep core stability muscles. Your physiotherapist can advise you on specific exercises or you can download some exercise plans from the following web link: Ball Exercises

Posture Supports

Poor sitting posture is a common cause of sciatica. To assist the support of your lower back many simple and effective products have been developed over time. These include:

Please ask your physiotherapist for their advice on what will help you most.

When Should You Contact Your Physiotherapist?

Contact your Physiotherapist if sciatica pain grows worse over a few days, or if it begins to interfere significantly with your daily activities.

Call your physiotherapist or doctor immediately if you experience sudden, extreme weakness in a leg, numbness in the groin or rectum, or difficulty controlling bladder or bowel function. Patients with these symptoms may have cauda equina syndrome and should seek immediate medical attention. This condition can cause permanent damage if not quickly treated.