John Miller Physiotherapist

Article by John Miller

What is a Cramp?

A cramp occurs when many skeletal muscle fibres spontaneously and involuntarily undergo electrical activity, rapidly resulting in a painful, sustained muscle contraction, known as a muscle spasm. These contractions can be categorised into two types:

  1. Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps (EAMC)
  2. Nocturnal Cramps

As their names suggest, EAMC manifests during or after exercise, while nocturnal cramps specifically trouble individuals during nighttime. Severe contractions can lead to functional disability or, if nocturnal, disrupt sleep.

Causes of a Cramp

Although the precise cause of cramps remains elusive, various hypotheses exist for both EAMC and nocturnal cramps.

Causes of Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps (EAMC) include:

  1. Overuse that fatigues the affected muscle and reduces fibre lengthening between contractions.
  2. Altered neuromuscular control.
  3. Dehydration and electrolyte imbalances due to excessive sweating, which may be the primary cause or contribute to cramps.
  4. Incomplete recovery from a previous episode of cramping.
  5. Short resting muscle length, especially when fatigued.
  6. Electrolyte loss through sweating during exercise.
  7. Pregnancy.

Causes of Nocturnal Cramps involve:

  1. Dehydration resulting from chronic insufficient fluid intake or erratic drinking habits, including excessive alcohol consumption.
  2. Electrolyte imbalances (low magnesium, calcium, or potassium).
  3. Short resting muscle length.
  4. Poor blood circulation.
  5. Pregnancy.

Other Causes of Cramps

For leg cramps occurring during daily activities and at night, further investigation is essential to rule out medical conditions such as peripheral vascular disease, uremia (raised levels of urea and nitrogenous waste in the blood), diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, and alpha motor neuron disorders.

Medications that cause cramps may include diuretics, calcium channel blockers like nifedipine, long-acting ß2-agonists, steroids, lithium, statins, and cimetidine. If you suspect your medication triggers cramps, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

When You Experience a Cramp

To alleviate a cramp swiftly, stretch the affected muscle. For instance, if you have a calf cramp, pull your toes towards your knee. Some evidence suggests that consuming a highly salty drink, such as pickle juice, can relieve a cramp. Lastly, change your position to prevent recurring cramps.

For recurring cramps, consult a physiotherapist for a stretching routine that can provide immediate relief and prevent future episodes.

Preventing Cramps

To prevent cramps, consider the following factors:

  1. Maintain adequate hydration with a daily intake of two litres of water and reduced coffee and alcohol consumption.
  2. Regularly stretch major muscle groups, particularly calves, hamstrings, gluteals, and quadriceps.
  3. Consider magnesium or other electrolyte supplementation as recommended by your doctor or pharmacist.
  4. Prioritise thorough warm-up and hydration before and during exercise, with water or a sports drink.

Treatment for Cramps

Identifying the root cause of your cramps is paramount in treatment. This may involve addressing tight muscles, over-exercising, or other underlying factors. Experienced physiotherapists can assess and guide you through the appropriate treatment, which may include:

  1. Lengthening hypertonic muscles.
  2. Restoring joint range of motion.
  3. Strengthening weak muscles.
  4. Implementing lifestyle modifications, including fluid intake, coffee/alcohol reduction, and vitamin/electrolyte balance.
  5. Modifying exercise routines.

Investigating the Cause of Your Cramps

Collaboration with dietitians and your doctor is common when cramps are believed to have a diet or lifestyle origin. Seeking your doctor’s advice regarding recurrent cramps is advisable, as they can arrange further assessments, such as ultrasound, MRI, or blood tests, if necessary.

If you have additional questions, don’t hesitate to consult your physiotherapist or doctor.

More info:

Unraveling the Mysteries of Muscle Cramps in Athletes

Common Muscle Injuries

A Physiotherapist's Guide


Muscle injuries, presenting as muscle strain, pain or myalgia, are prevalent health issues affecting a wide range of individuals. This detailed guide, from a physiotherapist's perspective, delves into various muscle injuries, elaborating on their management, prevention, and the importance of professional advice. Explore the linked articles for an in-depth understanding of muscle injuries and their effective treatment.

Common Muscle Injuries

Neck & Back Muscle Injuries: Causes and Solutions

  1. Back Muscle Pain: This pain often results from prolonged poor posture or physical overuse. Key to relief is engaging in exercises that strengthen the core muscles and improve posture, thereby alleviating the strain on the back.
  2. Neck Sprain: Caused by sudden, awkward movements, a neck sprain can benefit from a combination of gentle stretches and targeted strengthening exercises to restore flexibility and strength.
  3. Text Neck: A modern ailment resulting from extended mobile device use, text neck can lead to chronic pain. Regular breaks, posture-awareness, and neck-strengthening exercises are essential for prevention.
  4. Whiplash: Commonly occurring in car accidents, whiplash requires a careful approach including neck stabilisation exercises and controlled movement to encourage healing and prevent further injury.

Lower Limb Muscle Injuries: Understanding and Treating

  1. Hamstring Strain: Particularly common among athletes, particularly runners, this strain demands rest initially, followed by a carefully structured rehabilitation program focusing on gradual strength building and flexibility.
  2. Thigh Strain: Often seen in sports involving sprinting and jumping, thigh strains need a combination of rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) in the initial stages, followed by carefully planned strengthening exercises.
  3. Groin Strain: This injury requires a nuanced approach, including sufficient rest and targeted exercises, to ensure a safe and effective recovery.
  4. Calf Muscle Tear: Key to recovery is a balance of rest, gentle stretching exercises, and a gradual return to full activity, ensuring the muscle heals correctly and strength is regained.

Upper Limb Muscle Injuries: Prevention and Care

  1. Golfer's Elbow and Tennis Elbow: Both these conditions involve inflammation of the tendons and require a rest period, followed by ice therapy and specific exercises tailored to strengthen the affected muscles.
  2. Corked Thigh: Resulting from direct impacts, these injuries demand immediate application of ice and a controlled, gradual exercise regime for recovery.
  3. DOMS, Fatigue-Related Cramps & Myalgia: Adequate rest, good hydration, and gentle stretching are crucial in alleviating these conditions.
  4. RSI: Regular stretching, ergonomic workplace adjustments, and taking breaks are key preventive measures for repetitive strain injury.

Systemic Causes of Muscle Pain: A Holistic View

  1. Fibromyalgia: This complex condition demands a holistic treatment approach, including exercise routines, stress management techniques, and sometimes medication.
  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Effective management combines medication, gentle exercise, and regular physiotherapy sessions.

Prevention and Management Strategies

  • Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity helps maintain muscle strength and flexibility, reducing the risk of muscle injuries.
  • Posture Improvement: Good posture, both in motion and at rest, is crucial for preventing muscle strain.
  • Proper Warm-up and Cool-down: Adequate warm-up before and cool-down after physical activity is vital in preventing muscle strains and injuries.
  • Ergonomic Adjustments: Making ergonomic adjustments at work and during daily activities can significantly reduce the risk of repetitive strain injuries and other muscle-related issues.
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight: Keeping a healthy weight reduces the strain on muscles, particularly in weight-bearing joints.

What to Do? Seeking Professional Advice

Consult a physiotherapist or doctor for personalised advice and treatment plans. Remember, early intervention can significantly improve recovery outcomes and prevent chronic problems.


While muscle injuries are common, effective management and prevention are achievable with the right approach and knowledge. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and various treatments available empowers individuals to take proactive steps in their recovery and prevention. For the most tailored and effective treatment, always seek the guidance of a professional physiotherapist.

Common Muscle Injury FAQs

Managing and Recovering from Muscle Injuries

Welcome to our Muscle Injury FAQs. It's your comprehensive guide for understanding, treating, and bouncing back from muscle injuries.

We'll discuss the different muscle injury types, grasp the concept of muscle trigger points, and discover the reasons behind muscular pain post-exercise. Learn about effective treatments to speed up recovery, and explore the benefits of stretching exercises and foam rollers. Embrace the therapeutic effects of various massage therapies including remedial, relaxation, trigger point, acupressure, and sports massages. Gear up to play an active part in your journey towards recovery from muscle injuries.

For more detailed information simple the question hyperlinks below.

common muscle injuries
Muscle Injury Faqs

Diagnosing Muscle Injuries

  1. How Do You Know If It’s A Muscle Injury? - Understand how to identify a muscle injury, distinguishing it from other types of pain.
  2. What are the 4 Types of Muscle Injuries? - Explore the four main categories of muscle injuries, including strains and tears.
  3. What are the Most Common Muscle Injuries? - Learn about the most frequently occurring muscle injuries and how they affect your body.
  4. What is a Trigger Point in a Muscle? - Discover what trigger points are and their role in muscle pain.
  5. What Causes Post-Exercise Muscular Pain? - Uncover the reasons behind the muscular discomfort you feel after exercising.
  6. How Do You Know If Your Back Pain Is Muscular? - Find out how to determine if your back pain is due to a muscle injury.
  7. Tendinopathy vs Muscle Tear: What's the Difference? - Understand the differences between tendinopathy and muscle tears.
  8. Muscle vs Ligament Injury? - Learn the distinctions between injuries to muscles and ligaments.

early muscle injury treatment

Early Muscle Injury Treatment

Muscle Treatment & Recovery

  1. What is the Best Early Muscle Injury Treatment? - Discover the most effective initial treatments for muscle injuries.
  2. How Long Does it Take for a Muscle Injury to Heal? - Find out the typical healing times for various muscle injuries.
  3. How Does Dry Needling Help Muscle Injury? - Explore the benefits and process of dry needling in muscle injury recovery.
  4. How Can You Speed Up Muscle Recovery? - Learn strategies to accelerate the healing process of muscle injuries.
  5. What’s the Benefit of Stretching Exercises? - Understand the importance of stretching exercises in muscle recovery.
  6. How Do Foam Rollers Help Muscle Recovery? - Discover how foam rollers aid in the recovery of muscle injuries.
muscle injury treatment
Foam Rollers Are Excellent For Injury Prevention And Performance Improvement

Massage & Muscle Injuries

  1. Muscle Injury? What are the Benefits of Getting a Massage? - Explore the therapeutic advantages of massage for muscle injuries.
  2. What Is The Difference Between Remedial & Relaxation Massage? - Learn the distinctions between remedial and relaxation massage techniques.
  3. How Does Trigger Point Therapy Help? - Understand the role of trigger point therapy in treating muscle injuries.
  4. How Does Acupressure Help Muscle Injury? - Discover how acupressure can aid in the recovery of muscle injuries.
  5. What is Sports Massage? - Explore the specifics and benefits of sports massage for athletes and active individuals.
  6. When is the Best Time to Get a Pre-Event Massage? - Learn the optimal timing for a pre-event massage to enhance performance.
  7. When is the Best Time for Your Post-Event Massage? - Find out the ideal time to receive a post-event massage for effective recovery.


In conclusion, this FAQ article on managing and recovering from muscle injuries offers a wealth of information, from understanding different types of injuries like muscle strains and tears, to exploring various treatment and recovery options. Whether you're dealing with a recent injury, seeking preventive advice, or exploring therapeutic methods like massage and acupressure, this guide serves as a valuable resource.

Remember, the journey to recovery is unique for each individual, and this guide aims to empower you with knowledge and tools to aid in your healing process. Stay informed, listen to your body, and seek professional advice when needed, as you navigate the path to recovery and optimal muscle health.

You've just added this product to the cart: