What is a Bunion?
A bunion is a deformity of the big toe. A bunion is a toe that points at a sideways angle towards your second toe. There is also a characteristic bump on the inner side of the foot.
As the bunion becomes more prominent, bunion pain can develop. The medical term for a foot bunion is hallux valgus.
What Causes a Bunion?
Bunions are a result of complex biomechanical changes that occur in your feet.
The type of footwear that you wear does cause bunions. We know that foot bunions occur in about 30% of most Western countries’ population but only 3% in Eastern countries. They are seen most commonly in women and become more common as people age.
Tight-fitting shoes are thought to be the main cause of bunions. Shoes such as high heels and shoes with tight toe boxes (e.g. women’s fashion shoes and cowboy boots) are particularly damaging to the toes. These shoes have a sloping footbed and a narrow toe box.
The slope causes the foot’s front to bear your weight, which encourages your forefoot to widen. Also, the angle pushes your toes into the narrow toe box, causing the toes to become angled and squeezed together.
With prolonged wearing of constraining footwear, your toes will adapt to the new position and lead to the deformity we know as a foot bunion.
Footwear is not the only cause of a bunion. Injuries to the foot can also be a factor in developing a bunion. Poor foot arch control leading to flat feet or foot overpronation does make you biomechanically susceptible to foot bunions.
A family history of bunions also increases your likelihood of developing bunions.
Many people who have a bunion have a combination of factors that make them susceptible to having this condition.
For example, if you are a woman over forty with a family history of bunions and often wear high-heeled shoes, you would be highly likely to develop a bunion.
PHASE I – Pain Relief. Minimise Swelling & Injury Protection
Pain is the main reason that you seek treatment for a bunion. Analgesics may help.
Ice therapy and techniques or exercises that de-load the inflammed structures best ease inflammation. Anti-inflammatory medications may help.
Your physiotherapist will use various treatment tools to reduce your pain and inflammation.
These include ice, electrotherapy, acupuncture, de-loading taping techniques, soft tissue massage and orthotics to off-load the bunion.
PHASE II – Restoring Normal ROM & Posture
As your pain and inflammation settle, your physiotherapist will focus on restoring your standard toe and foot joint range of motion and muscle length.
Treatment may include joint mobilisation and alignment techniques, massage, muscle and joint stretches, taping, a bunion splint or orthotic.
Your physiotherapist is experienced in the techniques that will work best for you.
PHASE III – Restore Normal Muscle Control & Strength
Your foot posture muscles are vital to correct the biomechanics causing your bunion to deteriorate. Your physiotherapist will assess your foot posture muscles and prescribe the best exercises specific to your needs.
PhysioWorks has developed a Foot Posture Correction Program to assist you in regaining your normal foot posture.
Please ask your physio for their advice.
PHASE IV – Restoring Full Function
This rehabilitation stage aims to return you to your desired activities. Everyone has different demands for their feet that will determine what specific treatment goals you need to achieve. For some, it is simply to walk around the block. Others may wish to run a marathon or return to a labour-intensive activity.
Your physiotherapist will tailor your rehabilitation to help you achieve your own functional goals.
PHASE V – Preventing a Recurrence
Bunions will deform further with no attention. Plus, the bunion pain associated does tend to return. The main reason is biomechanical.
In addition to your muscle control, your physiotherapist will assess your foot biomechanics and may recommend a temporary off-the-shelf orthotic or refer you to a podiatrist for custom-made orthotics. You should avoid wearing high-heeled shoes with tight or angular toe boxes.
Your physiotherapist will guide you.
Bunion surgery is occasionally required when the bunion deformity is too advanced for conservative treatment to work. Your surgeon usually cuts an angular section from the bone to correct the alignment. In some cases, multiple toes may need to be straightened.
Bunion Night Splints
Bunion Night Splints are an option for stretching and re-aligning your toe joint.
The most popular bunion splints that we recommend are:
More Bunion Advice
Please ask your physiotherapist if you have any concerns or specific questions regarding your condition.
Common Foot Pain Causes
Various factors, ranging from injuries and tendon problems to degenerative conditions and systemic diseases, can cause foot pain. Some common causes of foot pain include foot injuries, plantar fasciitis, bunions, metatarsalgia, Morton's neuroma, tendon injuries, bone injuries, degenerative conditions like arthritis, biomechanical issues, nerve-related sources such as tarsal tunnel syndrome, and muscle injuries.
Certain systemic conditions like fibromyalgia, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis can also contribute to foot pain. This comprehensive list covers a wide range of foot pain causes, encompassing different areas of the foot and various underlying conditions.
- Achilles Tendon Rupture
- Achilles Tendinopathy
- FHL Tendinopathy
- Peroneal Tendinopathy
- Tibialis Posterior Tendinopathy
- Ankle Fracture (Broken Ankle)
- Stress Fracture
- Stress Fracture Feet
- Severs Disease
- Osteochondritis Dissecans
- Heel Spur
- Shin Splints
Traumatic Ankle Ligament Injuries
Soft Tissue Inflammation
Soft Tissue Inflammation
Other Useful Information
Foot, Ankle & Heel Pain FAQs
Welcome to our comprehensive FAQ guide on Foot, Ankle & Heel Pain. In this guide, we aim to address common questions and concerns related to foot, ankle, and heel pain. We will cover various topics, including ankle injuries, heel pain, Achilles pain, foot pain, shin pain, youth injuries, and balance and proprioception. Whether you're experiencing discomfort or seeking preventive measures, this guide will provide valuable insights and advice to help you understand and manage these conditions effectively.
- What are the Common Ankle Injuries?
- Which are the Most Commonly Injured Ankle Ligaments?
- How to Strap an Ankle?
- What Causes Ankle Impingement?
- What is a High Ankle Sprain?
- What Constitutes a "Simple" Ankle Sprain?
- Why Do Your Joints Click?
- What are the Common Causes of Heel Pain?
- How Do You Treat Heel Pain in a Child?
- How Can You Tell the Difference Between Heel Spurs and Plantar Fasciitis?
- What are the Common Causes of Foot Pain?
- How Can You Relieve Foot Pain?
- What are the Disadvantages of Barefoot Running?