John Miller Physiotherapist

Article by John Miller

Understanding TMJ: Frequently Asked Questions

What Causes TMJ

What is TMJ?

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the joint that connects your jawbone to your skull. TMJ disorders, or TMD, refer to a range of conditions that cause pain and discomfort in the jaw joint and muscles that control jaw movement. More info: TMJ Dysfunction.

What are the common symptoms of TMJ disorders?

TMJ disorders can lead to various symptoms, including jaw pain, difficulty opening or closing the mouth, clicking or popping sounds when chewing or talking, jaw headaches, earaches, and neck pain.

What causes TMJ disorders?

The exact cause of TMJ disorders isn’t always straightforward. However, factors like jaw injuries, teeth loss, arthritis, teeth grinding (bruxism), facial muscle stress, poor posture, and certain medical conditions can contribute to developing TMJ issues. Clicking and locking jaw involves an articular disc derangement.

How are TMJ disorders diagnosed?

A dentist, TMJ physiotherapist or a Craniomandibular specialist will typically examine your jaw and listen for clicking or popping sounds when you move it. X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs may provide a detailed view of the joint and surrounding structures. But, most TMJ radiological changes will only become apparent in chronic cases. How your jaw is aligned at it opens is an important diagnostic and treatment guide.

What can I do at home to alleviate TMJ pain?

Applying moist heat packs to your jaw muscles, practising relaxation techniques to reduce stress, eating soft foods, avoiding gum chewing, and maintaining good posture can help manage TMJ pain at home. Avoiding over-clenching and practising full opening exercises and facial muscle massage are helpful.

When should I seek professional help for TMJ issues?

If you experience persistent or worsening pain in your jaw joint, headaches, clicking or difficulty opening or closing your mouth, or if your symptoms interfere with daily activities, you should consult a dentist or a TMJ physiotherapist for proper evaluation and treatment.

What are the treatment options for TMJ disorders?

Treatment varies based on the severity and cause of the condition. It can include self-care measures like rest and gentle jaw exercises, pain relievers, muscle relaxants, dental splints or mouthguards, TMJ physiotherapy, and in severe cases, surgery. In some instances crowns and bridges can improve teeth alignment, which improve your TMJ resting posture. Most cases do not require surgery.

Can TMJ disorders be prevented?

While some factors are beyond your control, such as genetics, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk. Avoid excessive gum or pen lid chewing, practice good posture, manage stress effectively, and wear protective mouthguards if you tend to grind your teeth. Gentle preventative exercises can also be prescribed by your TMJ physiotherapist.

How can a dentist help with TMJ issues?

Dentists can thoroughly assess your condition, offer guidance on pain management techniques, recommend appropriate treatments, and create custom-fitted oral appliances to alleviate symptoms and prevent teeth grinding. Oral plates assist with the resting posture of your TMJs so is probably the most effective

Are there any complications associated with untreated TMJ disorders?

If left untreated, TMJ disorders can lead to significant and permanent arthritis joint changes, articular disc degradation, chronic pain, difficulty eating, worsening teeth grinding, and even changes in the alignment of your teeth and jaw.

How can a physiotherapist assist with TMJ issues?

Physiotherapists play a crucial role in managing TMJ disorders by focusing on the muscles and joints involved in jaw movement. A TMJ physiotherapist’ s strength is the improvement in the symmetrical motion of your TMJs to fully open and close. They use a range of techniques to help alleviate pain and improve jaw function:

Manual Therapy

Physiotherapists use hands-on techniques to manipulate and mobilise the jaw joint, helping to restore its normal range of motion and reduce discomfort.


Physiotherapists can design specific exercises to strengthen and stretch the muscles around the jaw. These exercises help improve jaw stability, reduce muscle tension, and enhance overall jaw function.

Posture Correction

Poor posture can contribute to TMJ issues. A physiotherapist can assess your posture and guide you on maintaining proper alignment, which can help alleviate strain on the jaw joint.

Relaxation Techniques

Stress and tension often exacerbate TMJ problems. Physiotherapists can teach relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing and mindfulness, to help manage stress and reduce muscle tension in the jaw area.

Pain Management

Physiotherapists can use various modalities, such as ultrasound, heat therapy, or electrical stimulation, to help manage pain and inflammation in the jaw joint and surrounding muscles.


A physiotherapist can provide valuable instruction about proper jaw mechanics, ergonomics, and habits that might contribute to TMJ issues. They can guide you on how to modify your daily activities to reduce strain on the jaw.


Physiotherapists often work collaboratively with dentists, orthodontists, and other healthcare professionals to create a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses TMJ disorders’ structural and functional aspects.

Incorporating physiotherapy into your TMJ treatment plan can enhance your overall recovery by targeting muscle imbalances, improving joint mobility, and providing you with tools to manage pain and stress effectively. It’s advisable to consult with a qualified TMJ physiotherapist who has experience in treating jaw pain issues to receive personalised care tailored to your needs.


In conclusion, TMJ disorders can cause discomfort and interfere with daily life. However, with proper care and treatment, many people find relief from their symptoms. Suppose you’re experiencing persistent jaw pain or related symptoms. In that case, it’s wise to consult your dentist or a TMJ physiotherapist for a thorough assessment and guidance tailored to your situation.

TMJ & Jaw Pain FAQs