Frequently Asked Questions

ACL Injury FAQs

ACL Injury FAQs
Acl Injury Faqs

ACL Injury FAQ Guide

Welcome to our ACL FAQs guide, where we'll provide straightforward answers to your questions about ACL injuries. Discover what an ACL injury is and its main function in your knee. Learn about Level I ACL-risk sports and effective injury prevention strategies. Understand how ACL diagnoses are made and recognise the symptoms of a tear. Uncover insights on MRI scans for knee injuries and explore various treatment options, including whether surgery is necessary.

We'll also shed light on living without an ACL, the choice between reconstruction and exercise, and the best surgical approaches. Plus, find out what might happen if you opt out of surgery. Finally, gain valuable insights into post-ACL reconstruction rehabilitation and the role of ACL braces. Get ready to dive into the world of ACL injuries and solutions.

Common ACL Questions

Diagnosing ACL Injuries

ACL Treatment Options

ACL Surgical Reconstruction

Related Knee Injuries


In summary, this ACL Injury FAQ page provides hyper links to comprehensive insights into the symptoms, treatment options, and recovery processes for ACL injuries. Armed with this knowledge, you can make informed decisions about your health and recovery journey.

If you suspect an ACL injury or are experiencing persistent knee problems, it's crucial to seek professional medical advice. Don't hesitate to book an appointment with a knee physiotherapist or Orthopaedic surgeon for a diagnosis and personalised treatment plan.

Remember, timely intervention and professional guidance are key to a successful recovery and returning to your active lifestyle.

Related Articles

  1. ACL Injury Treatment - Readers will find comprehensive treatment options for ACL injuries, including both surgical and non-surgical methods.
  2. Knee Ligament Injuries - This page explains different types of knee ligament injuries, including the ACL, and their treatment options.
  3. Knee Pain & Conditions - Discover various knee conditions and their symptoms, treatment, and prevention strategies.
  4. Meniscus Tear - Learn about meniscus tears, a common knee injury that can accompany ACL injuries, including how they are diagnosed and treated.
  5. Post-Surgery Knee Rehabilitation - Gain insights into effective rehabilitation strategies following knee surgery, which is crucial for ACL injury recovery.
  6. Knee Braces for ACL Injuries - This article discusses the role of knee braces in supporting and protecting the ACL during recovery.
  7. Sports Physiotherapy - Find out how sports physiotherapy can help in the prevention and treatment of sports-related injuries, including ACL injuries.
  8. Preventing ACL Injuries in Women - Learn why ACL injuries are more common in women and discover strategies for prevention.
  9. Knee Arthritis - Understand how ACL injuries can lead to or exacerbate knee arthritis, and explore treatment options.
  10. Running Injuries - Since running can impact ACL injuries, this page provides insights on prevention and management of running-related knee issues.

John Miller Physiotherapist

Article by John Miller

Age-Related Neck Pain: A Closer Look at Its Prevalence with Age

As we journey through life, our bodies inevitably go through a myriad of changes, some more welcome than others. One common concern that seems to become more prevalent with age is neck pain. But does neck pain truly become more common as we age? Let's explore the factors contributing to this condition and whether age plays a significant role in its incidence.

The Impact of Aging on Neck Health

Our neck, a pivotal part of the body that supports the head and enables a wide range of movement, is susceptible to wear and tear over the years. The spine, which is an integral part of the neck, undergoes changes that can lead to discomfort and pain. Conditions such as cervical spondylosis, often referred to as neck arthritis, and degenerative disc disease become more common with age. These conditions can cause pain and restrict movement.

Why Age Matters

As we get older, the discs between the vertebrae in our neck can lose hydration and elasticity, leading to decreased disc height and bulging discs. Furthermore, the wear and tear on the spine can lead to bone spurs and stiffening of the ligaments, contributing to neck pain. The cumulative effect of these age-related changes can significantly impact neck health, making pain more common in older adults.

Age And Neck Pain: Effective Management Strategies"

Lifestyle Factors and Neck Pain

However, it's not just the aging process that's to blame. Lifestyle factors play a crucial role in the health of our neck. Poor posture, especially with the increasing use of computers and smartphones, can exacerbate neck strain. A sedentary lifestyle can weaken the muscles that support the neck, making it more prone to injury and pain. Thus, while age-related changes can contribute to neck pain, our daily habits and lifestyle choices have a significant impact as well.

Age-Related Neck Conditions

As we age, specific conditions become more prominent, directly impacting our neck's health and comfort.

Cervical Spondylosis

Cervical spondylosis, for instance, affects nearly 85% of people over the age of 60. This condition results from chronic degeneration of the cervical spine, including the discs between the vertebrae and the joints. Symptoms can range from mild to severe neck stiffness, pain, and in some cases, nerve compression leading to numbness or weakness in the arms.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease is another condition that tends to become more prevalent with age. This involves the reduction of disc elasticity and height, leading to potential nerve pinching and spinal instability. The natural wear and tear process can also lead to osteoarthritis in the neck, characterised by the breakdown of cartilage and the development of bone spurs, which can restrict movement and cause pain.

The Benefits of Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy offers a beacon of hope for those suffering from age-related neck conditions. By focusing on specific exercises tailored to the individual's condition, physiotherapists can help improve flexibility, strength, and posture, which are vital in managing neck pain. Techniques such as manual therapy, including massage and mobilisation, can relieve stiffness and improve blood circulation, promoting healing and pain relief.

Physiotherapy also provides valuable education on ergonomic practices and lifestyle modifications to prevent further neck strain. This includes advice on proper posture, especially when using computers or mobile devices, and strategies to incorporate more physical activity into daily routines.

By adopting a holistic approach, physiotherapy not only addresses the symptoms of age-related neck conditions but also empowers individuals to take charge of their neck health, potentially reducing the need for medications or invasive treatments. Whether it's through therapeutic exercises, manual therapy, or lifestyle advice, physiotherapy plays a crucial role in enhancing the quality of life for those dealing with neck pain as they age.

Managing Neck Pain at Any Age

The good news is that neck pain, regardless of age, can be managed effectively. Key strategies include maintaining good posture, staying physically active, and incorporating neck-strengthening exercises into your routine. Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals, such as physiotherapists, can also provide guidance on managing neck pain and preventing further discomfort.


In conclusion, while neck pain does become more common as we age due to natural changes in the body, it is not an inevitable part of aging. By understanding the factors that contribute to neck pain and taking proactive steps to mitigate these risks, individuals can enjoy better neck health and reduce the impact of age-related neck pain. Embracing a healthy lifestyle, focusing on posture, and seeking professional advice when necessary can all play a part in maintaining a strong, healthy neck at any age.

Related Articles

  1. Cervical Spondylosis and Its Treatment
    • Discover how physiotherapy can alleviate symptoms of cervical spondylosis, offering strategies for pain management and improved mobility.
  2. The Role of Physiotherapy in Managing Degenerative Disc Disease
    • Learn about the benefits of physiotherapy in treating degenerative disc disease, including exercises and techniques to strengthen the neck and reduce pain.
  3. Preventing Neck Pain with Proper Posture: A Guide
    • This article offers practical tips for maintaining good posture to prevent neck strain and pain, emphasising ergonomic adjustments in daily activities.
  4. Exercises for a Stronger Neck: A Physiotherapist’s Recommendations
    • Find out which exercises physiotherapists recommend for strengthening the muscles around the neck, reducing the risk of pain and injury.
  5. The Impact of Lifestyle Choices on Neck Health
    • This article discusses how lifestyle choices, such as activity level and tech use, affect neck health and offers advice for making positive changes.
  6. Ergonomics for Neck Pain Relief: Setting Up Your Workspace
    • Learn how to adjust your workspace for optimal ergonomics, aiming to reduce neck pain for those who work at desks or use computers frequently.
  7. Manual Therapy Techniques for Neck Pain Relief
    • Discover how manual therapy, including massage and mobilisation, can offer significant relief for neck pain, improving flexibility and circulation.
  8. Navigating Neck Pain in the Digital Age: Tips for Tech Users
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  9. FAQs About Neck Pain: Answers from Physiotherapists
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Grace McMahon Physiotherapist

Article by Grace McMahon

When to Consider Back Surgery


Back pain is a common issue that affects many individuals. While most back pain cases can be managed with conservative treatments, there are instances where surgery becomes a necessary option. This article, written from a physiotherapist's perspective, aims to guide you through understanding when surgery might be considered for back pain and what to expect during the recovery process.

back surgery
Back Surgery Considerations

Back Pain Causes

Back pain can stem from various causes, such as muscle strains, ligament injuries, and degenerative conditions like arthritis or disc issues. It's estimated that 90% of people with back pain recover with conservative management, which includes physiotherapy, medication, and lifestyle changes.

Indications for Back Surgery

  1. Serious Spinal Pathology: Surgery is often recommended for serious conditions such as cancer, spinal infections, cauda equina syndrome, spinal fractures or instability, and certain spinal arthropathies like rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.
  2. Failure of Conservative Treatments: Surgery is considered when conservative treatments like physiotherapy, medications, and lifestyle modifications have been exhausted over a significant period, typically recommended for at least 3 months, but the pain persists.
  3. Loss of Neurological Function: Surgery may be necessary in cases where there is pain accompanied by neurological symptoms. This includes symptoms like pain referral down the leg, significant night pain, lower limb weakness, reduced reflexes, or altered sensation in the legs or feet.

Recent Research and Surgical Advances

Recent advancements in surgical techniques and an understanding of spinal conditions have led to more effective and safer surgical interventions. Decompressive spine surgery, for example, is widely used for conditions with neural compression or neurogenic claudication, despite having a low evidence base.

Post-Surgical Considerations

After surgery, physiotherapy plays a critical role in recovery. The rehabilitation process typically begins within the first two weeks post-surgery. Research has shown that supervised exercise can significantly improve pain and disability after lower back surgery.

Physiotherapy After Back Surgery

The early stages of physiotherapy focus on reducing pain, teaching correct spinal mechanics and posture, and activating trunk stabilising muscles. As recovery progresses, exercises are tailored to safely return you to your previous level of function.

What to Do?

If you are considering back surgery, it's crucial to discuss your options with a physiotherapist and spinal surgeon. They can provide valuable insights into whether surgery is the right option for you and what to expect during the recovery process.


Deciding to undergo back surgery is a significant decision that should be made after careful consideration and consultation with your healthcare professionals. Surgery is typically considered when conservative treatments fail, especially in cases involving serious spinal pathology or loss of neurological function. Physiotherapy plays an integral role in both pre-surgical preparation and post-surgical recovery, helping patients regain mobility and quality of life.

For more detailed information and to explore various treatment options, please book to see  your PhysioWorks physiotherapist or doctor. Their resources and professional guidance can provide deeper insights into managing back pain and the role of surgery in treatment.

Article by Matthew Hewitt

Are Injections Right For You?

In this article, we'll explore various injections including cortisone, PRP therapy, nerve blocks, and Botox. These treatments offer benefits but also carry risks. If your doctor has suggested an injection and you're uncertain, keep reading for insights and recent findings.

Cortisone Injections – Quick Relief for Inflammation

Cortisone, particularly in its HCLA form, swiftly reduces inflammation and pain. Administered easily in clinics or radiology centres, it offers rapid relief. However, while it mitigates symptoms, it may not address the underlying causes of inflammation. Cortisone is usually safe, yet it’s vital to discuss your medical history with your doctor, as repeated injections can pose risks.

Advantages of HCLA are:

  • Easily administered. Many GPs perform this in their clinic, and most radiology services offer this.
  • Rapidly reduces inflammation and pain typically over the course of less than a week. You may experience an initial increase in pain that should fade rapidly as the anaesthetic works, followed by longer term relief as the cortisone acts.
  • Can provide a window of opportunity for creating longer lasting benefits with other treatments which target the cause of the inflammation.

Some of the potential disadvantages of HCLA include:

  • Increased the internal pressure of the structure where it is injected – if this is being squeezed then it can be irritated in the short term as it gets larger for a period before the inflammation reduces.
    -  HCLA may not treat the cause of the original inflammation. If your inflammation is caused by an activity, biomechanics or an underlying medical condition your pain may return the same.
    - HCLA may not be suitable with some medications or medical conditions.

Due to some of the potential risks of repeated HCLA injections your doctor may limit how many you can have in one location.



cortisone injection. PRP injection. Shoulder
Shoulder Injection In Action

PRP Therapy – Harnessing the Power of Your Blood

PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasmaheresis) therapy uses your blood to promote tissue healing. Ideal for treating tendinopathies and post-surgical recovery, PRP leverages growth factors from your platelets to accelerate healing. This low-risk procedure might require several sessions but uses the body's natural processes to enhance recovery.

Advantages of PRP include:

  • Very low risk of allergic reaction.
  • Faster healing times.
  • Utilises the body's own systems to encourage healing.
  • Easily administered. Sports doctors and musculoskeletal radiology services offer this service.

PRP has some disadvantages, mainly associated with the blood sample:

  • Risk of bruising/bleeding.
  • May require multiple sessions for treatment.
  • It is less widely available than some other treatments

Because PRP is derived from your own blood it is not considered a drug, however it is not 100% risk free due to the nature of administration. If you have issues with blood samples this may not be the most suitable treatment for you.


Nerve Blocks – Targeted Pain Relief

Used for various purposes, nerve blocks provide significant pain relief, whether for surgical preparation or therapeutic reasons. They help pinpoint pain sources and manage post-surgical discomfort. However, potential risks like bleeding or infection require careful consideration and consultation with healthcare providers.

There are 3 purposes for nerve blocks, as outlined here:

  • Anaesthetic nerve blocks are used before surgery to help manage the pain you may experience afterwards.
  • Diagnostic nerve blocks are used to identify if you pain is coming from a specific nerve or nerve root. This can be useful if you are experiencing radicular pain or for determining the exact source of your pain.
  • Therapeutic nerve block are used to alleviate pain. This may contain a short- or long-lasting analgesic with or without an anti-inflammatory component.

Advantages of a nerve block include:

  • Temporary or permanent pain relief from the affected nerve.
  • Provision of a diagnosis if the cause of your pain is from the blocked nerves.
  • Reduced post-surgical pain

Nerve blocks have some risks such as:

  • Risk of bleeding.
  • Risk of infection.
  • Risk of affecting other areas than intended.

It is best to discuss the pros and cons of a nerve block with your GP and the provider.


Botox – Not Just for Aesthetics

Beyond cosmetic uses, Botox helps treat migraines, muscle spasms, and nerve pain by temporarily paralysing muscles. Although effective, potential side effects include pain at the injection site or unintended muscle weakness. It's crucial to discuss these with your healthcare provider.

Some of the reasons why Botox is used include:

  • Reduced muscle spasm and spasticity.
  • Reduced occurrence or frequency of migraines
  • Reduced nerve pain.

There are some risks associated with Botox injections, of which here are a few:

  • Pain, swelling or bruising at the site.
  • Muscle weakness or paralysis outside the intended area.
  • Allergic reaction.

For more information on the benefits and risks of Botox injections, we recommend discussing with your provider.




Injections like cortisone, PRP, nerve blocks, and Botox offer potential benefits for various conditions but come with considerations. Consulting with a physiotherapist can provide a comprehensive approach to understand if injections are suitable for you.

What to Do?

Considering an injection? Consult your physiotherapist or doctor for a tailored approach that considers your unique health needs and the latest research.

Injection FAQs

Q1: What are cortisone injections used for? A: Cortisone injections are used to reduce inflammation and pain in joints and other inflamed areas.

Q2: How does PRP therapy work? A: PRP therapy involves extracting your blood, processing it to increase platelet concentration, and reinjecting it to accelerate tissue healing.

Q3: What are nerve blocks? A: Nerve blocks are injections that can temporarily block nerve activity to help diagnose or treat pain.

Q4: Can Botox be used for medical treatments? A: Yes, Botox is used for various medical conditions, including treating migraines, muscle spasms, and certain types of nerve pain.

Q5: What are the risks of injection therapies? A: Common risks include infection, bleeding at the injection site, and potential allergic reactions.

Q6: How often can I get these injections? A: The frequency of injections can vary based on the type and your specific health needs. It's essential to follow a healthcare provider's advice.

Related Articles

  1. Cortisone Injection For Shoulder: Rotator Cuff & Bursitis - Explore how cortisone injections can alleviate shoulder issues including bursitis and rotator cuff injuries.
  2. Shoulder Bursitis Treatment, Physio & Helpful Tips - Gain insights on managing shoulder bursitis through physiotherapy and practical tips.
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