How to Minimise or Prevent Whiplash
Can You Prevent Whiplash?
What is Whiplash?
Whiplash is an injury that results from sudden acceleration-deceleration forces on the neck. The term encompasses various issues affecting muscles, joints, bones, ligaments, discs, and nerves.
Whiplash incidence reporting is subject to numerous factors such as traffic congestion, psychosocial factors, and litigation. Whilst some of these factors may be out of your control, adjusting your headrest appropriately can significantly reduce your risk!
What is the Prevalence of Whiplash?
- In an Australian study, the estimated prevalence is 3.8 drivers per every 1000 
- In the United States, there are up to 1 million cases per annum 
- Approximately 250000 cases each year are reported in the United Kingdom 
Can You Prevent Whiplash?
The best way to prevent whiplash is to purchase a car with a good safety rated head restraint and fit it correctly. Studies have shown 72-86% of head restraints are fitted incorrectly . It is important to note that correct head restraint fitting does not mean one-size-fits-all. If you and your partner share your car’s driving, it is important to note that the adjusts may vary significantly.
Understanding the Relationship Between Seat and Headrest
During a rear-ending motor vehicle collision, your car chassis is propelled forward faster than you are. The car seat will first impact your back. If your head and neck are not positioned correctly, your neck will likely sustain a whiplash injury. If your seat and headrest are adjusted well, your back and neck will move in unison and significantly reduce your likelihood of acquiring whiplash.
Is Your Headrest Adjusted Correctly?
Follow these steps to ensure your headrest is adjusted correctly
- Set the incline of your seat to approximately 20 degrees past vertical
- Position the headrest, so the top of the restraint is level with the top of your head
- Ensure the headrest is no further than 5cm from the back of your head.
Whilst fitting your headrest appropriately is crucial to whiplash prevention, knowing more about the safety of your vehicle and driving to conditions further reduces your risk. Your physiotherapist can review your car’s specific ergonomics upon request.
Neck Pain Causes
Neck Joint Injuries
Nerve-related / Referred Pain
Article by John Miller
When Should You Be Concerned About Neck Pain?
There is one situation where there’s no need to wait several weeks before deciding if your neck pain is serious.
If you’ve had an accident with forces that may have been sufficient to fracture your spine or tear nerves, seek a medical assessment as soon as possible. In this instance, either call an ambulance or head to a hospital emergency department.
Red Flags for Neck Pain
Otherwise, the rule of thumb is to start a more thorough medical investigation only when you meet all three of these conditions.
The three general red flags for neck pain are:
- it’s been bothering you for more than about six weeks
- it’s severe and/or not improving, or getting worse
- there is at least one other “red flag” (see below)
Red flags are reasons to seek a professional opinion rather than to worry. Seek the advice of your physiotherapist or doctor if any of these red flags apply to you.
- Light tapping on the spine is painful.
- A torn artery may cause severe, throbbing or constrictive (novel pain), with a high risk of a stroke. Pain is the only symptom of some tears. Most cases are sudden, on one side, and cause neck and head pain (in the temple or back the skull), but the pain is usually strange. Any hint of other symptoms? Promptly attend a hospital emergency.
- There are many possible signs of spinal cord trouble in the neck, with or without neck pain, mainly affecting the limbs: e.g. poor hand coordination; weakness, “heavy” feelings, and atrophy; diffuse numbness; shooting pains in the limbs (especially when bending the head forward); gait awkwardness. Sometimes patients present with both neck pain and more remote symptoms and don't realise they are related.
- Unexplained episodes of dizziness or nausea, and vomiting may indicate a problem with the stability of the upper cervical spine.
- Weight loss without dieting (it's a potential sign of cancer).
- Mystery fevers or chills, especially in people with diabetes).
- A severe headache that comes on suddenly is a “thunderclap headache”! Most are harmless, but it is always wise to investigate thoroughly.
- Symptoms of meningitis (inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, caused by infection or drug side effects). The presence of a fierce headache or an inability to bend the head forward, fever, or an altered mental state.
- The main signs that neck pain might be caused by autoimmune disease specifically include:
- a family history of autoimmune disease,
- gradual but progressive increase in symptoms before the age of 40,
- marked morning stiffness,
- pain in other joints as well as the low back,
- difficult digestion,
- irritated eyes, and
- discharge from the urethra (bladder).
- Steroid use, other drug abuse, and HIV are all risk factors for a serious cause of neck pain.
- If you feel pretty unwell in any other way, that could indicate that neck pain isn’t the only thing going on.
More info: Neck Pain