Field hockey is played in 132 countries and is the second most played team sport after soccer. It is estimated that 15% of hockey players are injured during a single season and that injuries cause players to spend 11% of the total hockey season training and playing at less than full capacity.
Who is Injured?
Players aged 10 to 19 years accounted for 50% of injuries, mostly in the 15-19 year age group. Of all presentations, 5% are admitted to the hospital for further treatment.
Types of Hockey Injuries
- Most serious hockey injuries result from being struck by the stick or the ball.
- The most common injuries presenting to hospitals are open wounds, fractures, sprains and strains and bruising and lacerations.
- Injuries presenting to a hospital are predominantly to the upper limb (mostly injuries to the hand and forearm), face and lower limb (mostly ankle, foot and knee injuries).
- Injuries to the head and eyes (mostly struck by stick or ball) are infrequent but tend to be comparatively severe, with a higher than average rate of admission to hospital.
- Dental injuries are also infrequent, although the damage may be severe and is mostly irreversible.
- Overuse injuries to the ankles and lower back are common.
Safety Tips for Hockey Players
- Players should undergo a fitness testing prior to their season
- Players should routinely warm-up and cool down, including adequate stretching, before and after play.
- Particular attention should be given to thoroughly warming-up and stretching the ankles, hips and lower back. Wear appropriate protective equipment
- Goalkeepers should wear a helmet and face guard during training and competition.
- All players should wear shock-absorbent shin guards during training, informal play and competition.
- All players should wear properly fitted mouth guards to prevent dental injury.
Leg Pain Causes
Common Youth Leg Injuries
Pelvis & Hip
- Osgood Schlatter's Disease
- Sinding Larsen Johannson Disease
- Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
- Patella Dislocation
- Meniscus Tear
- Discoid Meniscus
- Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans
Heel & Ankle
Arm Pain Causes
Arm pain and injuries are widespread. Arm pain can occur as a result of either sudden, traumatic or repetitive overuse. The causes can be related to sports injuries, work injuries or simply everyday arm use.
Causes of Arm Pain by Region
Causes of Arm Pain by Structure
Neck-Related Arm Pain
Shoulder-Related Arm Pain
- AC Joint Injury
- Biceps Tendinopathy
- Broken Shoulder - Fractured Humerus
- Bursitis Shoulder
- Dislocated Shoulder
- Frozen Shoulder
- Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinopathy
- Rotator Cuff Syndrome
- Rotator Cuff Tear
- Shoulder Arthritis
- Shoulder Impingement
- Shoulder Tendonitis
- Swimmer's Shoulder
Elbow-Related Arm Pain
Wrist-Related Arm Pain
Hand-Related Arm Pain
Muscle-Related Arm Pain
- DOMS - Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
- Muscle Strain (Muscle Pain)
- RSI - Repetitive Strain Injury
- Overuse Injuries
Other Sources of Arm Pain
Common Causes of Arm Pain
- Your rotator cuff or frozen shoulder most commonly causes shoulder pain.
- Elbow pain is most commonly caused by tennis elbow or golfers elbow.
- Wrist & hand pain can be related to carpal tunnel, wrist arthritis or even a thumb tendon condition known as de Quervain's tenosynovitis.
Referred Arm Pain
As mentioned earlier, arm pain can be referred to from another source. Cervical radiculopathy is a common source of referred arm pain. Cervical radiculopathy will not respond to treatment where you feel the arm pain. However, it will respond positively to treatment at the source of the injury (e.g. your neck joints).
Professional assessment from a health practitioner skilled in diagnosing both spinal-origin and local-origin (muscle and joint) injuries (e.g. your physiotherapist) is recommended to ensure an accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment directed at the arm pain source.
Arm Pain has Diverse Causes.
The causes of your arm pain can be extensive and varied. Due to this diversity, your arm pain should be assessed by a suitably qualified health practitioner to attain an accurate diagnosis, treatment plan and implementation specific to your arm pain.
What Arm Pain is Associated with a Heart Attack?
Left-arm pain can be an early sign of a life-threatening cardiac issue. Based on this, a professional medical assessment that involves an accurate history, symptom analysis, physical examination and diagnostic tests to exclude a potential heart attack is important to exclude this potentially life-threatening source of arm pain.
For more information, please consult with your health practitioner, call an ambulance on 000, or visit a hospital emergency department to put your mind at ease.
Good News. Most Arm Pain is NOT Life-Threatening.
Luckily, life-threatening arm pain is far less likely than a local musculoskeletal injury. Arm pain caused by a localised arm muscle, tendon or joint injury should be assessed and confirmed by your health practitioner before commencing treatment.
Arm Pain Prognosis
The good news is that arm pain, and injury will normally respond very favourably to medical or physiotherapy intervention when early professional assessment and treatment is sought. Please do not delay in consulting your healthcare practitioner if you experience arm pain.
Common Arm Pain Treatments
With accurate assessment and early treatment, most arm injuries respond extremely quickly to physiotherapy or medical care, allowing you to resume pain-free and normal activities of daily living quickly.
Please ask your physiotherapist for their professional treatment advice.