Heel Pain & Injury

Heel Pain & Injury

Heel Pain

Heel pain and injury are extremely common. With accurate assessment and early treatment, most ankle and foot injuries respond extremely quickly to physiotherapy allowing you to quickly resume pain-free and normal activities of daily living.

Heel or Foot Pain?

You may not be aware that under the surface of your heel is a cushion of fat that protects your heel bone (calcaneus) from the impact stresses of walking, running, jumping and landing. Heel pain is a very common foot complaint and may involve injury to the bone, fat pad, ligaments, tendons or muscles.

Common heel injuries include plantar fasciitis, heel spurs, fat pad injuries and Sever’s disease. Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the ligament that runs the length of the foot, commonly caused by overstretching, flat feet or muscle weakness. It results in pain under the heel, particularly after rest or when walking and running.

heel spur is a bony growth where the plantar fascia inserts into your heel bone. It is the result of chronic plantar fasciitis or delayed healing that causes the bone to grow within the ligament.

The fat pad is normally injured by repeated landing trauma and can occasionally be a precursor to a stress fracture of the heel bone.

Sever’s disease is caused by stress on the growth plate in the heel bone and is common in active 8 to 13-year-olds.

Anyone can suffer from heel pain, but certain groups seem to be at increased risk, including:

  • Middle-aged men and women
  • Active people eg running sports
  • People who are very overweight
  • Children aged between 8 and 13 years
  • Pregnant women
  • People who stand for long periods of time

What Commonly Causes Heel Pain?

Some of the many causes of heel pain can include:

  • Abnormal walking style (such as rolling the feet inwards)
  • Obesity
  • Ill-fitting shoes eg narrow toe, worn out shoes
  • Standing, running or jumping on hard surfaces
  • Recent changes in exercise program
  • Heel trauma eg. stress fractures
  • Bursitis (inflammation of a bursa)
  • Health disorders, including diabetes and arthritis.

How is Heel Pain Treated?

Most heel pain is caused by a combination of poor biomechanics, or muscle weakness or tightness. The good news is that heel pain can be effectively managed once the cause is identified.

Most heel pain can be successfully treated via:

If you feel that your footwear or your sports training schedule is potentially causing your heel pain, then we recommend that you seek the advice of a sports physiotherapist, sports podiatrist or a highly-trained footwear specialist (not just a shop assistant) to see if your shoe is a match for your foot; or discuss your training regime to see if you are doing too much.

Heel pain and injury are extremely common. With accurate assessment and early treatment, most ankle and foot injuries respond extremely quickly to physiotherapy allowing you to quickly resume pain-free and normal activities of daily living.

For specific guidance regarding your heel condition, please seek the advice of your trusted healthcare practitioner.

FAQs about Heel Pain & Injury

Sports Injury Management

You probably already know that a sports injury can not only affect your performance, but also your lifestyle. The latest research continues to change sports injury management considerably.  Our challenge is to keep up to date with the latest research and put them to work for you.

How we treated you last year could vary greatly to how we treat you this year. The good news is that you can benefit significantly from our knowledge.

What Should You Do When You Suffer a Sports Injury?

Rest?

Rest from painful exercise or a movement is essential in the early injury stage. "No pain. No gain." does not apply in most cases.  The rule of thumb is - don't do anything that reproduces your pain for the initial two or three days.  After that, you need to get it moving or other problems will develop.

Ice or Heat?

We normally recommend avoiding heat (and heat rubs) in the first 48 hours of injury. The heat encourages bleeding, which could be detrimental if used too early. In traumatic injuries, such as ligament sprains, muscle tears or bruising, ice should help reduce your pain and swelling.

Once the "heat" has come out of your injury, heat packs  can be used. We recommend 20 minute applications a few times a day to increase the blood flow and hasten your healing rate. Heat will also help your muscles relax and ease your pain. If you're not sure what to do, please call us to specifically discuss your situation.

Should You Use a Compressive Bandage?

Yes. A compressive bandage will help to control swelling and bleeding in the first few days.  In most cases, the bandage will also help to support the injury as the new scar tissue is laid down. This should help to reduce your pain. Some injuries will benefit from more rigid support such as a brace or strapping tape. Please ask us if you are uncertain what to do next.

Elevation?

Gravity will encourage swelling to settle at the lowest point.  Elevation of an injury in the first few days is very helpful, especially for ankle or hand injuries.  Think where your injury is and where your heart is. Try to rest your injury above your heart.

What Medication Should You Use?

Your Doctor or Pharmacist may recommend pain killers or an anti-inflammatory drug. It is best to seek their professional advice as certain drugs can interfere with other health conditions, especially asthmatics.

When Should You Commence Physio?

In most cases, "the early bird gets the worm".  Researchers have found that intervention of physiotherapy treatment within a few days has many benefits.  These include:

  • Relieving your pain quicker via joint mobility techniques, massage and electrotherapy
  • Improving your scar tissue using techniques to guide the direction it forms
  • Getting you back to sport or work quicker through faster healing rates
  • Loosening or strengthening of your injured region with individually prescribed exercises
  • Improving your performance when you do return to sport - we'll detect and help you to correct any biomechanical faults that may be affecting your technique or predisposing you to injury

What If You Do Nothing?

Research tells us that injuries left untreated take longer to heal and have lingering pain.  They are also more likely to recur and leave you with either joint stiffness or muscle weakness. It's important to remember that symptoms lasting longer than three months become habitual and are much harder to solve.  The sooner you get on top of your symptoms the better your outcome.

What About Arthritis?

Previously injured joints can prematurely become arthritic through neglect. Generally there are four main reasons why you develop arthritis:

  • Previous injury that was inappropriately treated (eg old joint or ligament sprains)
  • Poor joint positioning (biomechanical faults)
  • Stiff joints (lack of movement diminishes joint nutrition)
  • Loose joints (excessive sloppiness causes joint damage through poor control)

What About Your Return to Sport?

Your physiotherapist will guide you safely back to the level of sport at which you wish to participate.  If you need guidance, simply ask us.

What If You Need Surgery or X-rays?

Not only will your physio diagnose your sports injury and give you the "peace of mind" associated, they'll also refer you elsewhere if that's what's best for you. Think about it. you could be suffering needlessly from a sports injury.  Please use our advice to guide you out of pain quicker . and for a lot longer.

If you have any questions regarding your sports injury (or any other condition), please contact your physiotherapist to discuss. You'll find our friendly staff happy to point you in the right direction.

What is Physiotherapy Treatment?

Physiotherapists help people affected by illness, injury or disability through exercise, manual joint therapy, soft tissue techniques education and advice.  Physiotherapists maintain physical health, help patients to manage pain and prevent disease for people of all ages. Physiotherapists help to encourage pain-relief, injury recovery, enabling people to stay playing a sport, working or performing activities of daily living while assisting them to remain functionally independent.

There is a multitude of different physiotherapy treatment approaches.

Acute & Sub-Acute Injury Management

Hands-On Physiotherapy Techniques

physiotherapy treatment

Your physiotherapist's training includes hands-on physiotherapy techniques such as:

Your physiotherapist has skilled training. Physiotherapy techniques have expanded over the past few decades. They have researched, upskilled and educated themselves in a spectrum of allied health skills. These skills include techniques shared with other healthcare practitioners. Professions include exercise physiologists, remedial massage therapists, osteopaths, acupuncturists, kinesiologists, chiropractors and occupational therapists, just to name a few.

Physiotherapy Taping

Your physiotherapist is a highly skilled professional who utilises strapping and taping techniques to prevent and assist injuries or pain relief and function.

Alternatively, your physiotherapist may recommend a supportive brace.

Acupuncture and Dry Needling

Many physiotherapists have acquired additional training in the field of acupuncture and dry needling to assist pain relief and muscle function.

Physiotherapy Exercises

Physiotherapists have been trained in the use of exercise therapy to strengthen your muscles and improve your function. Physiotherapy exercises use evidence-based protocols where possible as an effective way that you can solve or prevent pain and injury. Your physiotherapist is highly-skilled in the prescription of the "best exercises" for you and the most appropriate "exercise dose" for you depending on your rehabilitation status. Your physiotherapist will incorporate essential components of pilates, yoga and exercise physiology to provide you with the best result. They may even use Real-Time Ultrasound Physiotherapy so that you can watch your muscles contract on a screen as you correctly retrain them.

Biomechanical Analysis

Biomechanical assessment, observation and diagnostic skills are paramount to the best treatment. Your physiotherapist is a highly skilled health professional. They possess superb diagnostic skills to detect and ultimately avoid musculoskeletal and sports injuries. Poor technique or posture is one of the most common sources of a repeat injury.

Hydrotherapy

Aquatic water exercises are an effective method to provide low bodyweight exercises.

Sports Physiotherapy

Sports physio requires an extra level of knowledge and physiotherapy skill to assist injury recovery, prevent injury and improve performance. For the best advice, consult a Sports Physiotherapist.

Vestibular Physiotherapy

Women's Health

Women's Health Physiotherapy is a particular interest group of therapies.

Workplace Physiotherapy

Not only can your physiotherapist assist you in sport, but they can also help you at work. Ergonomics looks at the best postures and workstation set up for your body at work or home. Whether it be lifting technique improvement, education programs or workstation setups, your physiotherapist can help you.

Electrotherapy

Plus Much More

Your physiotherapist is a highly skilled body mechanic. A physiotherapist has particular interests in certain injuries or specific conditions. For advice regarding your individual problem, please contact your PhysioWorks team.

Planning on running a marathon, half marathon, participating in a charity run or just running for fun? Dreading the post-exercise soreness and fatigue? When you push your body to perform intense exercise or exercise it may be unaccustomed to, it is beneficial to know what to do to assist recovery after the event. Here are six tips to assist you in recovering after a running event.

1. Post-Run Nutrition

After exercise it is paramount you replenish the energy stores (glycogen/carbohydrates, electrolytes and protein) and fluid stores you lost during activity. This will assist the body in recovery from intense exercise and assist your immune system damaged by the exercise.

Carbohydrates

Within the first-hour post-exercise, when glycogen synthesis is highest, it is advised to consume a carbohydrate rich snack/meal which provides 1-1.2g of carbohydrate per 1kg of body weight.

Protein

Intense exercise causes a breakdown in muscle tissue. Protein is used to restore tissue and assist muscle adaptation. Essential amino acids from high-quality protein rich foods in the hour post exercise is recommended to promote protein rebuilding. 10-20g of protein in the first-hour post exercise is recommended.

Rehydration

It is essential to replace the fluid lost during exercise. To ensure proper rehydration electrolytes, particularly sodium, lost through sweat are required. Sodium assists to reduce urine loss and therefore increased fluid balance post exercise. It is recommended to weigh yourself before and after your race. A guideline to fluid replacement is 1L for every 1kg lost during the event. More info: Sports Dietitian

2. Cool Down Exercise

Low-intensity exercise can assist in removing lactic acid build up and promote blood flow to relieve tight and sore muscles. This can be performed as a light jog or walk after your event or the day following. This can be followed by a brief 5 to 15-min period of stretching to assist with tight muscles. More info:
  • 4 Reasons to do a Cool Down

3. Soft Tissue Recovery

Ways to assist soft tissue recovery at home include foam rolling and wearing compression garments. Foam rolling can be used on the back, ITB, hamstrings, quads and calves. It is recommended to spend 2x 1minute intervals on each area. Compression garments are recommended to be worn for 24hrs post exercise. Both techniques can assist in reducing post-exercise muscle soreness and may enhance recovery of muscle performance. More info: Foam Rollers

4. Recovery Massage

A post-run recovery massage can reduce excessive post-exercise muscle tone, increase muscle range of motion, increasing circulation and nutrition to damaged tissue, and deactivate symptomatic trigger point, reduced post-exercise soreness and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Soft tissue therapy has also been said to aid in psychological recovery alongside music, warm baths and showers to enhance muscle relaxation and allow recovery. More info: Recovery Massage

5. Ice

There is often debate whether ice baths (cold water immersion) is beneficial after exercise. In regards to running, ice helps to decrease inflammation resulting from an intense activity. This can help to decrease post activity muscle soreness. The day after intense activity, heat can be used to help relax tight muscles. Heat also promotes blood flow to an area, which can promote the recovery of lactic acid build up. More info: Ice therapy

6. Sleep

A good night’s sleep consisting of around 8 hours is important for muscle recovery among other biological functions. As mentioned above compression garments can be worn to bed to further assist with recovery. A good night’s sleep can be achieved by ensuring the room is cool, dark and quiet, and free of electronic distractions. Ideally one should have a well-developed sleep routine that consists of the aforementioned strategies and avoids caffeine and excessive fluid intake before bed.
Tendinopathy (tendon injuries) can develop in any tendon of the body. You may have heard of tendinopathies being referred to as its aliases: tendonitis, tendinitis, tenosynovitis and tendinosis. In simple terms, they are all tendon injury pathologies so the medical community now refers to them as tendinopathies. Typically, tendon injuries occur in three areas:
  • tendon insertion (where the tendon attaches to the bone)
  • mid-tendon (non-insertional tendinopathy)
  • musculotendinous junction (where the tendon attaches to the muscle)

What is a Tendon Injury?

Tendons are the tough fibres that connect muscle to bone. Most tendon injuries occur near joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, knee, and ankle. A tendon injury may seem to occur suddenly, but usually, it is the result of repetitive tendon overloading. As mentioned earlier, health care professionals may use different terms to describe a tendon injury. You may hear: Tendinitis (or Tendonitis): This means "inflammation of the tendon". Mild inflammation is actually a normal tendon healing response to exercise or activity loading, but it can become excessive, where the rate of injury exceeds your healing capacity.

Tendinopathy Phases

The inability of your tendon to adapt to the load quickly enough causes the tendon to progress through four phases of tendon injury. While it is healthy for normal tissue adaptation during phase one, further progression can lead to tendon cell death and subsequent tendon rupture.

1. Reactive Tendinopathy

  • Normal tissue adaptation phase
  • Prognosis: Excellent.
  • Normal Recovery!

2. Tendon Dysrepair

  • Injury rate > Repair rate
  • Prognosis: Good.
  • The tendon tissue is attempting to heal.
  • It is vital that you prevent deterioration and progression to permanent cell death (phase 3).

3. Degenerative Tendinopathy

  • Cell death occurs
  • Prognosis: Poor!
  • Tendon cells are dying!

4. Tendon Tear or Rupture

  • Catastrophic tissue breakdown
  • Loss of function.
  • Prognosis: very poor.
  • Surgery is often the only option.

What is Your Tendinopathy Phase?

It is very important to have your tendinopathy professionally assessed to identify it’s current injury phase. Identifying your tendinopathy phase is also vital to direct your most effective treatment since certain treatment modalities or exercises should only be applied or undertaken in specific tendon healing phases.

Systemic Risk Factors

The evidence is growing that it is more than just the tendon and overload that causes tendinopathy. Diabetics, post-menopausal women and men with high central adiposity (body fat) seem to be predisposed to tendinopathies and will need to carefully watch their training loads.

What are the Symptoms of Tendinopathy?

Tendinopathy usually causes pain, stiffness, and loss of strength in the affected area.
  • The pain may get worse when you use the tendon.
  • You may have more pain and stiffness during the night or when you get up in the morning.
  • The area may be tender, red, warm, or swollen if there is inflammation.
  • You may notice a crunchy sound or feeling when you use the tendon.
The symptoms of a tendon injury can be similar or combined with bursitis.

How is a Tendon Injury Diagnosed?

To diagnose a tendon injury, your physiotherapist or doctor will ask questions about your past health, your symptoms and recent exercise regime. They'll undertake a thorough physical examination to confirm the diagnosis. They will then discuss your condition and devise an individualised treatment plan. They may refer you for specific diagnostic tests, such as an ultrasound scan or MRI.

Tendinopathy Treatment

Tendinopathies can normally be quickly and effectively rehabilitated. However, there is a percentage of tendinopathies that can take months to treat effectively. As mentioned earlier in this article, it is important to know what phase your tendinopathy currently is. You physiotherapist can assist not only your diagnosis but also guide your treatment to fast-track your recovery. Before you seek the advice of your physiotherapist or doctor, you can start treating an acute tendon injury at home. To achieve the best results, start these steps right away:
  • Rest the painful area, and avoid any activity that makes the pain worse.
  • Apply ice or cold packs for 20 minutes at a time, as often as 2 times an hour, for the first 72 hours. Keep using ice as long as it helps.
  • Do gentle range-of-motion exercises and stretching to prevent stiffness.

When to Return to Sport

Every tendinopathy is different, so please be guided by your physiotherapist assessment. It may take weeks or months for some tendon injury to heal and safely cope with a return to sporting loads. Be patient, and stick with the treatment exercises and load doses prescribed by your physiotherapist. If you start using the injured tendon too soon, it can lead to more damage, and set you back weeks!

Tendinopathy Prevention

To minimise reinjuring your tendon, you may require some long-term changes to your exercise activities. These should be discussed with your physiotherapist. Some factors that could influence your tendinopathy risk include:
  • Altering your sport/activities or your technique
  • Regular prevention exercises.
  • Closely monitoring and record your exercise loads. Discuss your loading with your physiotherapist and coach. They will have some excellent tips.
  • Always take time to warm up before and cool down / stretch after you exercise.

Tendinopathy Prognosis

While most acute tendinopathies can resolve quickly, persisting tendon injuries may take many months to resolve. Long-term or repeat tendinopathies usually have multifactorial causes that will require a thorough assessment and individualised rehabilitation plan.  Researchers have found that tendon injuries do respond differently to muscle injuries and can take months to solve or potentially render you vulnerable to tendon ruptures, which can require surgery. For specific advice regarding your tendinopathy, please seek the advice of your trusted healthcare professional with a special interest in tendinopathies.

What is Barefoot Running?

Barefoot running is a term that means either running either without shoes or with minimalist shoes. Barefoot running has gained popularity over the last few years as a way to return to pure running and has been proclaimed to help reduce the rate of running injuries. But is this accurate? To gain a more scientific basis on whether barefoot running is advantageous or not for you, let’s look at what researchers have discovered.

Who is Suited to Barefoot Running?

When you run without shoes, you tend to land on the front part of our foot. This is called a forefoot strike. Landing through the centre of your foot is called a midfoot strike. If you were to land barefoot on your heel, it's called a rearfoot strike, the ground-shock would be excessive, and you would develop heel pain or injury, plus some other injuries further up your leg. That's why most barefoot runners tend to have a forefoot or midfoot strike. When you put on a traditional jogger with rearfoot cushioning, this cushioning allows you to land on your heel without damage. This is why lot of shoe runners become rearfoot strikers.

Ground Reaction Forces

The graphs below chart what is called ground reaction forces. The chart to the left is a rearfoot strike technique, and the right chart demonstrates a forefoot strike.

What does this Mean?

Generally, the higher the force, the greater the risk of injury. When you look closer, however, you can see that the ground reaction forces are actually higher in the forefoot strike chart. Surely this would mean that you would get more injuries running with a forefoot strike technique. Not exactly. As well as considering the ground reaction force, you also need to look at the vertical loading rate.

Vertical Loading Rate

Vertical loading rate (see the chart below) is a measure of how quickly the ground reaction forces increase. The steeper the curve, the greater the risk of injury. Running with a rearfoot strike produces a steeper curve, and makes some leg injuries more likely, but once again not all.

Running Shoes vs Barefoot Running

Does this mean you should toss away all of your running shoes? Maybe hold on them just a little longer. The evidence is not clear yet as to whether a forefoot/midfoot strike does actually reduce your injury rate. What appears to occur is the barefoot running reduces loads in one area only to increase loads in another. And, since you are probably running on firm or rough surfaces such as footpaths, roads or gravel, you'll need some form of cushioning and protection for your feet. Don't you hate landing on those little stones!

What Should You Do?

If you are running without injuries at present you would probably be silly to change. Changing footwear and technique may simply add another increase in loading and create new injuries elsewhere. Certainly, at PhysioWorks, we are seeing more forefoot injuries in barefoot runners, which does make sense given the load charts. Plus, most of these injuries occur within a few weeks of changing your running style. However, if you have been suffering injuries from running, barefoot may be a consideration for you. Changes to your running technique such as reducing your stride length or your shoe style could help you. You may also have some muscle control issues in another part of your body that could be altering the way you adapt your running style. So, before you toss your running shoes, it may be in your interest to consult with a running physiotherapist, a sports podiatrist or a running coach who can analyse your running style, assess your body for weakness or tightness, check your leg and foot biomechanics or simply help you to retrain your running technique or some slightly weak muscles. Most problems that cause running injuries are simpler to fix than you may think.

What is Therapeutic Ultrasound?

Therapeutic ultrasound is an electrotherapy modality which has been used by physiotherapists since the 1940s. Via an ultrasound probe through a transmission coupling gel in direct contact with your skin, ultrasound waves are applied. ultrasound Therapeutic ultrasound may increase:
  • healing rates
  • tissue heating
  • local blood flow
  • tissue relaxation
  • scar tissue breakdown.

How Could Ultrasound Help?

Ultrasound increases local blood flow. This increase may help to reduce local swelling and promote soft tissue healing rates. A higher power density may soften scar tissue.

Specific Ultrasound Uses

Mastitis or blocked milk ducts successfully respond to therapeutic ultrasound. The effect is quite dramatic, with improvement within 24 to 72 hours. The most common conditions treated with ultrasound include soft tissue injuries such as muscle, ligament injuries or some tendinopathies. Phonophoresis uses ultrasound in a non-invasive way of administering medications to tissues below the skin. This method may assist patients who are uncomfortable with injections. With phonophoresis, the ultrasonic energy forces the drug through the skin.

What is an Ultrasound Dose?

A typical ultrasound treatment will take from 3-10 minutes. Where scar tissue breakdown is the goal, this treatment time could be much longer. During the procedure, the head of the ultrasound probe is in constant motion. If kept in continuous motion, the patient should feel no discomfort at all. Some conditions treated with ultrasound include soft tissues injuries such as muscles or ligament injuries, tendinopathy, non-acute joint swelling and muscle spasm.

How Does an Ultrasound Work?

A piezoelectric effect, caused by the vibration of crystals within the ultrasound head of the probe creates the sound waves. The ultrasound waves generated then pass through the skin cause a vibration of the local soft tissues. This repeated cavitation can cause a deep heating locally though usually no sensation of heat will be felt by the patient. In situations where a heating effect is not desirable, an athermal application occurs. Athermal doses are typical during acute fresh injury and the associated acute inflammation.

When Should Ultrasound be Avoided?

Contraindications of ultrasound include:
  • local malignancy,
  • over metal implants,
  • local acute infection,
  • vascular abnormalities,
  • active epiphyseal regions (growth plates) in children,
  • over the spinal cord in the area of a laminectomy,
  • over the eyes, skull, or testes
  • and, directly on the abdomen of pregnant women. Treatment ultrasound differs from diagnostic ultrasound!
Like all medical equipment, when used by highly trained professionals, such as your physiotherapist, therapeutic ultrasound is very unlikely to cause any adverse effects. Please consult your physiotherapist for their opinion on whether therapeutic ultrasound could assist your injury. Therapeutic Ultrasound differs from Real-Time Ultrasound Treatment.

7 Ways to Prevent a Future Leg Injury?

You may reduce the chance of leg injury by following these seven simple tips:
  • Warm-up before you exercise.
  • Warm down when you finish. Warm down usually includes some simple stretching exercises and plyometric drills.
  • Wear well-fitting shoes, boots or braces that provide excellent joint support.
  • Tape or brace your ankles/knees in high-risk sports such as football, basketball, volleyball and netball.
  • Avoid activities on slippery, wet or uneven surfaces, or in areas with poor lighting.
  • Strengthen your leg muscles and regularly use a wobble disc or balance board
  • Maintain general functional fitness.

Common Youth Leg Injuries

youth sports injuries

Why are Children's Injuries Different to Adults?

Adolescent injuries differ from adult injuries, mainly because the bones are still growing. The growth plates (physis) are cartilaginous (strong connective tissue) areas of the bones from which the bones elongate or enlarge. Repetitive stress or sudden large forces can cause injury to these areas.

Common Adolescent Leg Injuries

In the adolescent leg, common injuries include:

Osgood-Schlatter's Disease

Pain at the bump just below the knee cap (tibia tubercle). Overuse injuries commonly occur here. The tibia tubercle is the anchor point of your mighty quadriceps (thigh) muscles. It is because of excessive participation in running and jumping sports that the tendon pulls bone off and forms a painful lump that will remain forever. This type of injury responds to reduced activity and physiotherapy. More info: Osgood Schlatter's Disease

Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Disease

Pain at the lower pole of the knee cap (patella). Overstraining causes Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease. It is the because of excessive participation in running and jumping sports that the tendon pulls bone off the knee cap. This type of injury responds to reduced activity and physiotherapy. More info: Sinding Larsen Johansson Syndrome

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain or patellofemoral syndrome frequently gets passed off as growing pains. Cause of this pain includes overuse, muscle imbalance, poor flexibility, poor alignment, or more commonly, a combination of these. Anterior knee pain is one of the most challenging adolescent knee injuries to sort out and treat. Accurate diagnosis and treatment with the assistance of a physiotherapist with a particular interest in this problem usually resolves the condition quickly. More info: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Knee Ligaments

The cartilage between the leg bones have a better blood supply and are more elastic in adolescents than in adults. As adolescents near the end of bone growth, their injuries become more adult-like, hence more meniscal and ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) injuries are likely. MCL (medial collateral ligament) injuries result from a lateral blow to the knee. Pain felt on the inner side (medially) of the knee. MCL injuries respond well to protective bracing and conservative treatment. More info: Knee Ligament Injuries

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) injuries

This traumatic knee injury is significant. Non-contact injuries of the ACL are becoming more common than contact injuries of the ACL. Adolescent females are at high risk. Combination injuries with MCL or menisci are common. Surgical reconstruction is needed if the adolescent wishes to continue participating in "stop-and-start" sports. More info: ACL Injury

Meniscal injuries

Your meniscus is crescent-shaped cartilage between the thigh bone (femur) and lower leg bone (tibia). Meniscal injuries usually result from twisting. Swelling, catching, and locking of the knee are common. If physiotherapy treatment does not resolve these types of damages within six weeks, they may require arthroscopic surgery. More info: Meniscus Tear, Discoid Meniscus

Sever's Disease

Heel pain is commonplace in the young adolescent due to the stresses of their Achilles tendon pulling upon its bony insertion point on the heel (calcaneum). It is a common overuse injury as a result of excessive volume of training and competition, particularly when loads are increased dramatically in a short period. Diminished flexibility and muscle-tendon strength mismatching may predispose you. Physiotherapy, reduced activity, taping and orthotics are some of the best ways to manage this debilitating condition for the active young athlete. More info: Sever's Disease

Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain is probably the most common injury seen in sports. Ankles sprains involve stretching of the ligaments and usually occur when the foot twists inward. Treatment includes active rest, ice, compression and physiotherapy rehabilitation. An ankle sprain usually improves in 2-6 weeks with the correct treatment. Your ankle physiotherapist should check even simple ankle sprains. A residually stiff ankle post-sprain can predispose you to several other lower limb issues More info: Sprained Ankle

Patellar Instability

Patellar (kneecap) instability can range from partial dislocation (subluxation) to dislocation with a fracture. Partial dislocation treatment is conservative. Dislocation with or without fracture is a much more severe injury and usually will require surgery. More info: Patella Dislocation

Osteochondritis Dissecans

Separation of a piece of bone from its bed in the knee joint is Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD). This injury is usually due to one major macro event with repetitive macro trauma that prevents complete healing. This injury is potentially severe. Treatment varies from rest to surgery. An Orthopaedic Surgeon's opinion is vital. More info: Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans (JOCD)

Growth Plate Fractures

A fracture through the growth plate can be a severe injury that can stop the bone from growing correctly. These fractures should be treated by an Orthopaedic Surgeon, as some will require surgery.

Avulsion Fractures

youth pelvis hip avulsion
Image source: https://radiologyassistant.nl/pediatrics/hip/hip-pathology-in-children
An avulsion fracture occurs when a small segment of bone attached to a tendon or ligament gets pulled away from the main bone. The hip, elbow and ankle are the most common locations for lower limb avulsion fractures in the young sportsperson. Treatment of an avulsion fracture typically includes active rest, ice and protecting the affected area. This period of active rest is followed by controlled exercises that help restore range of motion, improve muscle strength and promote bone healing. Your physiotherapist should supervise your post-avulsion exercises. Most avulsion fractures heal very well.  You may need to spend a few weeks on crutches if you have an avulsion fracture around your hip. An avulsion fracture to your foot or ankle may require a cast or walking boot. In rare cases, an excessive gap between the avulsed bone fragment and main bone may not rejoin naturally. Surgery may be necessary to reunite them. In children, avulsion fractures that involve the growth plates also might require surgery. All avulsion fractures should be reviewed and managed by your trusted physiotherapist or an Orthopaedic Surgeon. For more information regarding your youth sports injury, please consult your physiotherapist or doctor.

Common Youth Leg Injuries

Pelvis & Hip

Knee

Heel & Ankle

Common Youth & Teenager Sports Injuries

Common Youth Neck & Back Pain Common Youth Arm Injuries
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