Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Article by John Miller

What is Thoracic Outlet Syndrome?

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome is a complex condition in which blood vessels and/or nerves are entrapped or compressed as they exit the thorax. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome is caused by a compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels as they leave the neck into the shoulder region and pass under the first rib.

Anatomy of the Thoracic Outlet

The structures most commonly compromised in Thoracic Outlet Syndrome are:

  • subclavian artery
  • subclavian vein
  • lower roots of the brachial plexus (bundle of nerves supplying the upper body and arms)

These structures may become compressed in 3 areas:

  • between the anterior and middle scalene muscles of the neck
  • between the collarbone and first rib
  • beneath the coracoid process of the shoulder blade

Types of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

There are two main classifications of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Vascular & Neurological

Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

  • 2% of cases
  • Compression of the blood vessels exiting the thorax (subclavian artery or vein)

Neurological Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

  • 98% of cases
1. True Neurological Thoracic Outlet Syndrome:
  • Compression of nerves exiting thorax due to bony or soft tissue anomaly.
2. Symptomatic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome:
  • Intermittent compression of nerves and blood vessels due to repetitive postural, occupational or sporting forces (Watson et al., 2009)

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Symptoms

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome is characterised by:

  • Pain, altered sensation and weakness of the upper limb.
  • Pain or discomfort is often felt above or below the collarbone and may radiate down the arm.
  • Altered sensation and temperature in the arm and hand is also associated with this condition.
  • Symptoms are generally aggravated or exacerbated by lifting your arm or turning your head or neck (Lindgren & Oksala, 1995).

Symptoms vary and are often difficult to differentiate from other shoulder aetiologies such as rotator cuff pathology or cervical radiculopathy (pinched nerve).

Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

  • Pins & needles, numbness in arm and hand
  • Decreased or absent arterial pulse
  • Swelling, coldness, colour change in arm and hand
  • A feeling of stiffness, heaviness fatigue in the arm (Watson et al., 2009)

Neurological Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

  • Pain in the neck, collar bone region, chest, upper back, shoulder, arm, hand
  • Pins & needles, numbness in fingers
  • Weakness of arm and hand
  • Loss of dexterity/coordination in the hand
  • Muscle spasms in arm/hand
  • A feeling of stiffness, heaviness, fatigue in the arm
  • Pain at rest and night pain
  • Less commonly dizziness, headaches, vertigo (Watson et al., 2009)

Risk Factors for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

  • Bony abnormalities, e.g. abnormal first rib, cervical rib
  • Trauma
  • Poor posture
  • Jobs or sporting activities involving repetitive overhead movements
  • Weight gain

Common Thoracic Outlet Findings

Symptoms may increase with overhead ranges of motion on examination. You may also have a positive: Costoclavicular manoeuver, Roo’s test or Adson’s test.

If you suspect thoracic outlet syndrome, you may consider cervical spine X-rays to evaluate the presence of a cervical rib or prominent C7 transverse process that may contribute to the symptoms. Additional tests (e.g., MRI, EMG) can be used to rule out other causes.

Physiotherapy Treatment of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

  • Postural advice and education
  • Ergonomic assessment and intervention
  • Rest from aggravating activities
  • Correction of ‘dropped shoulder’ position (Watson et al., 2010)
  • Strengthening of shoulder blade stabilising muscles
  • Mobilisation of the thoracic spine and first rib
  • Massage of neck, chest and upper back muscles
  • Neural gliding exercises

Surgery should only be considered if conservative treatment fails (MacKinnon & Novak, 2002)

For more specific information, please seek the advice of your physiotherapist.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Treatment Options

Thoracic outlet treatment will vary significantly depending on the structure causing your symptoms. Would you please consult your doctor or physiotherapist for specific thoracic outlet syndrome treatment?


Article by John Miller

Youth Spinal Pain

Teenager Neck & Back Pain

teenager back pain

Teenagers can be particularly vulnerable to back pain, mainly due to a combination of high flexibility and low muscle strength and posture control. 

The competitive athlete and most individuals who exercise regularly or maintain fitness and core stability control are less prone to spine injury and problems due to the strength and flexibility of supporting structures. Luckily, issues involving the lower lumbar spine are rare in athletes and account for less than 10% of sports-related injuries. Injuries do occur in contact sports and with repetitive strain sports. Your physiotherapist can assist in the resolution of any deficits in this area.

Sports such as gymnastics, cricket fast bowlers, and tennis have a higher incidence of associated lumbar spine problems related to repetitive twisting and hyper-bending motions.

Spondylolisthesis is a significant concern and needs to be appropriately treated by a physiotherapist with a particular interest in these types of injuries. Luckily, most injuries are minor, self-limited, and respond quickly to physiotherapy treatment.

Common Adolescent Spinal Injuries

Lower Back (Lumbar Spine)

Midback (Thoracic Spine)

Neck (Cervical Spine)


For specific advice regarding youth neck or back pain, please seek the professional advice of your trusted spinal physiotherapist or doctor.

Common Youth & Teenager Sports Injuries

Common Youth Leg Injuries

Common Youth Arm Injuries

Article by John Miller

How Long Does It Take For A Muscle Injury To Heal?

The recovery time for a muscle injury depends on the severity of the damage. For a mild strain, you may be able to return to normal activities within a few days or a week. For more severe strains, recovery can take several weeks and even months. In nasty cases, surgical repair and post-operative physiotherapy may be necessary.

With professional assessment and the treatment guidance of your physiotherapist, most muscle injuries recover entirely.

To avoid re-injury, please ensure that you have adequately rehabilitated your body for a return to sport or work. Follow your physiotherapist’s specific instructions. Don’t engage in high-risk physical activity until your muscles have healed and strengthened appropriately.

Common Treatments for Muscle Strain

The following options are available to your physiotherapist to assist the rehabilitation of your muscle strain. Please seek their professional advice prior to self-managing your injury to avoid aggravating your muscle strain. These are general guidelines only and should not be treated as individual treatment advice.

Acute Muscle Strain Treatment

Subacute Muscle Strain Treatment

Later Stage Muscle Strain Treatment Options

Other Factors to Consider

General Information


Massage Techniques